We close out our series of tip-sheets on the causes of actions available to states who have been victims of bribery and corruption with a note on unjust enrichment. This is an interesting claim that sets the bar a little lower than some of the previous claims we have reviewed. There is no need to provide evidence of the underlying bribery or corruption – it is only necessary to prove that the defendant has been enriched at the expense of the state under one of four unjust factors. We also consider what does not need to be proved as well as the available defences and remedies. Our tip-sheet on unjust enrichment is available here.
This week’s tip-sheet concerns the remedies available to states where they are party to a contract procured through bribery. We discuss the pros and cons of rescission and termination as well as the reasons why a state may choose to re-negotiate contracts that have been affected by bribery. We also consider the risk of waiver that can occur when a decision to terminate or rescind is not taken quickly enough. Our tip-sheet is available here.
This week’s tip-sheet covers claims for breach of fiduciary duty which can be brought against public officials who have been involved in conduct contrary to their duty to act in the state’s best interests. We detail potential defendants and explain the principles that need to be established at court (and those that do not). We also look at the alternative methods of calculating damages. The tip-sheet is available here.
This tip-sheet gives a summary of proprietary claims. This type of claim arises where a state’s property has been stolen, or wrongfully transferred away, such as property sold below market value as a result of bribery. It is a claim for a specific asset or sum of money, which can be contrasted with a compensatory claim for damages. So, for example, a victim state can claim the return of a stolen asset, including any increase in its value, in priority to other creditors. We explain how and when this type of claim can be used and the advantages a proprietary claim has over a claim for compensation in our tip-sheet here.
This week’s tip-sheet covers claims for dishonest assistance, which is a claim that can be used to sue third parties who participated in wrongdoing but did not receive the benefit of it. We detail potential defendants and explain the principles that need to be established at court (and those that do not). We also look at the alternative methods of calculating damages. The tip-sheet is available here.
The latest entry in our tip-sheet series deals with unlawful means conspiracy. This claim is useful where multiple parties have been involved in a scheme to corruptly defraud a state. We set out the circumstances when it may arrive and explain what you need to establish when bringing the claim. We also touch on how recoveries are calculated. Our tip-sheet is available here.
While the tip-sheet is designed for states, the claim can also be used by companies seeking to sue competitors who corruptly beat them in a tender by paying bribes. Our post on suing bribing competitors can be found here.
We have just published our second tip-sheet on the substantive claims available to victims of bribery and corruption, which sets out the key details for a claim in knowing receipt. This claim allows a victim to sue anyone who received the benefit of assets taken in breach of trust, in circumstances where it would be unconscionable for the recipient to keep them. We explain who can be sued, when the claim applies, what needs to be proved, when the claim will fail, and what can be recovered in our tip-sheet here.